Paving the way globally in microbial efficacy, we have a highly comprehensive portfolio
of efficacy testing in ultrasound probe high level disinfection.

We go further…

Nanosonics conducts extensive laboratory testing, focused on continually validating the effectiveness of trophon. Patient safety and reducing the risk of infection spread is paramount to us and drives our clinical research and testing.

Going far beyond the minimum regulatory requirements, we prioritise having the broadest possible microbial efficacy program. This absolute dedication to going further really sets us apart and ensures we exceed standards in high level disinfection.

trophon is a pioneer globally in microbial efficacy, the first high level disinfection system in the world proven to kill native, infectious, high-risk HPV1

    • trophon inactivates the mandated subset of microorganisms, as required by US regulations
    • trophon is proven to also eliminate an extended range of infectious pathogens that other HLD products do not, including*:

– Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

– Clostridium difficile spores

– Drug resistant bacteria

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

Ultrasound probes frequently contact body sites where STIs can occur. trophon is proven to completely inactivate a range of STI causing pathogens.*


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an incurable disease that affects the immune system, impairing its ability to fight disease.


More than 1.2 million people in the US live with HIV, and 1 in 8 of them are unaware. 1

trophon has been shown to inactivate HIV in laboratory tests.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B (HBV) is an infection that attacks the liver. It is transmitted through bodily fluids, for example, during sexual contact.

Hepatitis B

There is currently no available cure for HBV.

trophon is effective against Hepatitis B on ultrasound probes.


Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common notifiable disease in America. It can result in infertility & ectopic pregnancy.

Chlamydia trachomatis

In 2015 there were 1,526,658 chlamydial infections reported to the CDC.6

trophon is effective against Chlamydia on ultrasound probes.

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood borne virus that can cause chronic infection and liver diseases like liver cancer.

Hepatitis C

An estimated 2.7 to 3.9 million people in the United States have chronic hepatitis C.2

trophon is effective against Hepatitis C on ultrasound probes.


HPV is the most commonly diagnosed STI, with around 14 million new genital HPV infections in America each year.3


Causes 99.7% of cervical cancer cases, 88% of anal cancers, 70% of vaginal cancer cases and 50% of penile cancers. 4,5

trophon is effective against HPV on ultrasound probes.



Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a sexually transmitted disease that infects both women and men and, if left untreated, can lead to infertility.


It is estimated that 820,000 new infections occur annually in America. Less than half of these are detected and reported.7

trophon is effective against Gonorrhea on ultrasound probes.



Candida albicans can cause fungal infection in mucous membranes such as the throat and vagina.


There are 46,000 cases of invasive candidiasis annually in the US
and up to 30% of bloodstream infections are fatal.8

trophon is effective against Candida on ultrasound probes.

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). HIV in the United States: At A Glance. CDC Fact Sheet. Updated 30 November 2016. Accessed 17 Jan 2017.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Hepatitis C FAQs for Health Professionals. CDC Webpage. Updated 21 July 2016. Accessed 17 Jan 2017.
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Genital HPV Infection – Fact Sheet [Internet]. 2015 [updated 2015 Feb 23; cited 2015 Mar 31]. Available from:
4. Taylor S, Bunge E, Bakker M, Castellsagué X. The incidence, clearance and persistence of non-cervical human papillomavirus infections: a systematic review of the literature. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016;16:293.
5. Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, Bosch FX, Kummer JA, Shah KV, et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. The Journal of pathology. 1999;189(1):12-9.
6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Chlamydia. CDC Webpage. Updated 18 October 2016. Accessed 17 Jan 2017.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Gonorrhea – CDC Fact Sheet (Detailed Version). Updated 28 October 2016. Accessed 17 Jan 2017.
8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Invasive Candidiasis Statistics. CDC Webpage. Updated 12 December 2016. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.
* Nanosonics internal test data

Clostridium difficile spores

High level disinfectants are only required to be sporicidal at extended contact times. trophon has been shown to inactivate Clostridium difficile spores even within its manufacturer specified 7 minute cycle time in laboratory testing.*


C. diff

Clostridium difficile is a common hospital acquired infection (HAI), characterised by severe diarrhoea.

C. diff

Is estimated to have caused almost 500,000 infections in the US in 2011. 29,000 of the patients who developed it died within 30 days of the initial diagnosis.1,2

trophon is effective against Clostridium difficile spores.

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Clostridium difficile Infection. CDC Website. Updated 1 March 2016. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Clinicians (Clostridium difficile). CDC Website. Updated 23 September 2016. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.
* Nanosonics internal test data

Drug resistant bacteria

Drug resistant bacteria outbreaks in healthcare facilities are a real threat and antibiotics are ineffective against these strains. trophon inactivates these drug resistant bacteria.*


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is antibiotic resistant and a common cause of many HAIs.


Infection with MRSA can cause skin infections and can lead to more severe diseases including sepsis, pneumonia and bloodstream infections.

trophon is effective against MRSA on ultrasound probes.


Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) have resistance to one of the last resort antibiotics available.1


Enterococci reside in the gut and symptoms can be severe. Infection can occur from contaminated healthcare settings.

trophon is effective against VRE on ultrasound probes.


Infection with Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) can cause severe morbidity and death.


A wave of CRE outbreaks were associated with duodenoscopes in the USA and EU between 2013 and 2015 resulting in hundreds of patient deaths.2,3

trophon is effective against CRE on ultrasound probes.

1. Reed D, Kemmerly SA. Infection Control and Prevention: A Review of Hospital-Acquired Infections and the Economic Implications. The Ochsner Journal. 2009;9(1):27-31.
2. Rubin ZA, Murthy RK. Outbreaks associated with duodenoscopes: new challenges and controversies. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2016;29(4):407-14.
3. O’Horo JC, Farrell A, Sohail MR, Safdar N. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and endoscopy: An evolving threat. Am J Infect Control. 2016; 44(9):1032-6.
* Nanosonics internal test data

FDA mandatory testing requirements

The FDA has minimum requirements for HLD. trophon inactivates all of the mandated microorganisms.*


Mycobacteria can cause serious diseases like tuberculosis. HLD should eliminate mycobacteria within contact time.


Mycobacteria have a tough cell wall and are highly resistant to disinfectants.

trophon is effective against Mycobacteria on ultrasound probes.


Fungi and yeast are opportunistic pathogens. High level disinfection should be effective against fungi.


Fungi and yeast can be highly resistant to disinfection. They can take advantage of a change in a patient’s health (e.g. immunocompromised status).

trophon is effective against fungi and yeast on ultrasound probes.


Vegetative bacteria (such as E. Coli) cause a wide variety of infectious diseases in healthcare and in the community.


All FDA registered disinfectants should demonstrate activity towards vegetative bacteria.

trophon is effective against vegetative bacteria on ultrasound probes.



Viruses (unlike bacteria) require a host for replication. HLD should inactivate enveloped & non-enveloped viruses.


Viruses can survive in the environment or on surfaces for periods of time. They can be transmitted via air, droplets, body fluids and contact with surfaces.

trophon is effective against viruses on ultrasound probes.

1. Ryndock E. et al. Susceptibility of HPV16 and 18 to high level disinfectants indicated for semi-critical ultrasound probes. J Medical Virology 2015. Published online 13 Nov 2015. DOI 10.1002/jmv.24421.
* Nanosonics internal test data

Organism Fungi
Vegetative bacteria Trichophyton mentagrophytes
Staphylococcus aureus Viruses
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Polio virus type 1
Salmonella choleraesuis Herpes simplex virus type 1
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Hepatitis A virus
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis Adenovirus type 2
Neisseria gonorrhoea Human hepatitis B virus surrogate (duck hepatitis B virus)
Mycobacteria Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
Mycobacterium terrae Human norovirus surrogate
Bacterial endospores Human rotavirus
Clostridium difficile Human papillomavirus HPV
Clostridium sporogenes Chlamydia
Bacillus subtilis Chlamydia trachomatis (serotype K)
Proven effective against a wide range of microorganisms,
you can have confidence in trophon.